EANM practice guideline/SNMMI procedure standard for dopaminergic imaging in Parkinsonian syndromes 1.0
Silvia Morbelli 1 2 , Giuseppe Esposito 3 , Javier Arbizu 4 , Henryk Barthel 5 , Ronald Boellaard 6 , Nico I Bohnen 7 , David J Brooks 8 9 , Jacques Darcourt 10 , John C Dickson 11 , David Douglas 12 , Alexander Drzezga 13 14 15 , Jacob Dubroff 16 , Ozgul Ekmekcioglu 17 , Valentina Garibotto 18 19 , Peter Herscovitch 20 , Phillip Kuo 21 , Adriaan Lammertsma 6 , Sabina Pappata 22 , Iván Peñuelas 4 , John Seibyl 23 , Franck Semah 24 , Livia Tossici-Bolt 25 , Elsmarieke Van de Giessen 26 , Koen Van Laere 27 , Andrea Varrone 28 , Michele Wanner 29 , George Zubal 30 , Ian Law 31
Purpose: This joint practice guideline or procedure standard was developed collaboratively by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI).
The goal of this guideline is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of dopaminergic imaging in parkinsonian syndromes.
Methods: Currently nuclear medicine investigations can assess both presynaptic and postsynaptic function of dopaminergic synapses. To date both EANM and SNMMI have published procedural guidelines for dopamine transporter imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (in 2009 and 2011, respectively). An EANM guideline for D2 SPECT imaging is also available (2009).
Since the publication of these previous guidelines, new lines of evidence have been made available on semiquantification, harmonization, comparison with normal datasets, and longitudinal analyses of dopamine transporter imaging with SPECT. Similarly, details on acquisition protocols and simplified quantification methods are now available for dopamine transporter imaging with PET, including recently developed fluorinated tracers.
Finally, [18F]fluorodopa PET is now used in some centers for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism, although procedural guidelines aiming to define standard procedures for [18F]fluorodopa imaging in this setting are still lacking.
Conclusion: All these emerging issues are addressed in the present procedural guidelines for dopaminergic imaging in parkinsonian syndromes.