- [IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTHERAPY]
- [IMMUNOMODULATION AND TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT]
- [MYELOID PATHOLOGY]
Consensus guidelines for the definition, detection and interpretation of immunogenic cell death
Galluzzi L# (1,2,3,4,5), Vitale I# (6,7), Warren S# (8), Adjemian S (9,10), Agostinis P (11,12), Martinez AB (13), Chan TA (14,15), Coukos G (16), Demaria S (13,2,17), Deutsch E (18,19,20), Draganov D (21), Edelson RL (4,22), Formenti SC 13,2, Fucikova J (23,24), Gabriele L (25), Gaipl US (26), Gameiro SR (27), Garg AD (11), Golden E (13,2), Han J 28, Harrington KJ (2 9,30), Hemminki A (31,32), Hodge JW (27), Hossain DMS (33), Illidge T (34), Karin M (35), Kaufman HL (36,37), Kepp O (38,39), Kroemer G (5,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45), Lasarte JJ (46), Loi S (47,48), Lotze MT 49,50,51, Manic G (6,7), Merghoub T (52,53,54), Melcher AA (55), Mossman KL (56), Prosper F (57), Rekdal Ø (58,59), Rescigno M (60,61), Riganti C (62,63), Sistigu A (64,65), Smyth MJ (66), Spisek R (23,24), Stagg J (67,68,69), Strauss BE 70, Tang D (71), Tatsuno K (4), van Gool SW (72), Vandenabeele P (9,10,73), Yamazaki T (13), Zamarin D (74,75), Zitvogel L (40,76,77,78,79), Cesano A (80), Marincola FM (81).
Cells succumbing to stress via regulated cell death (RCD) can initiate an adaptive immune response associated with immunological memory, provided they display sufficient antigenicity and adjuvanticity. Moreover, multiple intracellular and microenvironmental features determine the propensity of RCD to drive adaptive immunity.
Here, we provide an updated operational definition of immunogenic cell death (ICD), discuss the key factors that dictate the ability of dying cells to drive an adaptive immune response, summarize experimental assays that are currently available for the assessment of ICD in vitro and in vivo, and formulate guidelines for their interpretation.