The potential of bioprinting for preparation of nanoparticle-based calibration standards for LA-ICP-ToF-MS quantitative imaging
Kharmen Billimoria 1, Yuri A Diaz Fernandez 1 2, Elina Andresen 3, Ioritz Sorzabal-Bellido 4, Gonzalo Huelga-Suarez 1, Dorota Bartczak 1, Carlos Ortiz de Solórzano 4, Ute Resch-Genger 3, Heidi Goenaga Infante 1
This paper discusses the feasibility of a novel strategy based on the combination of bioprinting nano-doping technology and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for the preparation and characterization of gelatin-based multi-element calibration standards suitable for quantitative imaging.
To achieve this, lanthanide up-conversion nanoparticles were added to a gelatin matrix to produce the bioprinted calibration standards. The features of this bioprinting approach were compared with manual cryosectioning standard preparation, in terms of throughput, between batch repeatability and elemental signal homogeneity at 5 μm spatial resolution.
By using bioprinting, the between batch variability for three independent standards of the same concentration of 89Y (range 0-600 mg/kg) was reduced to 5% compared to up to 27% for cryosectioning. On this basis, the relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained between three independent calibration slopes measured within 1 day also reduced from 16% (using cryosectioning) to 5% (using bioprinting), supporting the use of a single standard preparation replicate for each of the concentrations to achieve good calibration performance using bioprinting.
This helped reduce the analysis time by approximately 3-fold. With cryosectioning each standard was prepared and sectioned individually, whereas using bio-printing it was possible to have up to six different standards printed simultaneously, reducing the preparation time from approximately 2 h to under 20 min (by approximately 6-fold). The bio-printed calibration standards were found stable for a period of 2 months when stored at ambient temperature and in the dark.