Publicaciones científicas

Messenger RNA as a personalized therapy: The moment of truth for rare metabolic diseases.

16-may-2022 | Revista: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

Karol M Córdoba 1, Daniel Jericó 1, Ana Sampedro 2, Lei Jiang 3, María J Iraburu 4, Paolo G V Martini 3, Pedro Berraondo 5, Matías A Avila 6, Antonio Fontanellas 7


Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) encompass a group of monogenic diseases affecting both pediatric and adult populations and currently lack effective treatments. Some IEM such as familial hypercholesterolemia or X-linked protoporphyria are caused by gain of function mutations, while others are characterized by an impaired protein function, causing a metabolic pathway blockage. Pathophysiology classification includes intoxication, storage and energy-related metabolic disorders. Factors specific to each disease trigger acute metabolic decompensations.

IEM require prompt and effective care, since therapeutic delay has been associated with the development of fatal events including severe metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, cerebral edema, and death. Rapid expression of therapeutic proteins can be achieved hours after the administration of messenger RNAs (mRNA), representing an etiological solution for acute decompensations. mRNA-based therapy relies on modified RNAs with enhanced stability and translatability into therapeutic proteins.

The proteins produced in the ribosomes can be targeted to specific intracellular compartments, the cell membrane, or be secreted. Non-immunogenic lipid nanoparticle formulations have been optimized to prevent RNA degradation and to allow safe repetitive administrations depending on the disease physiopathology and clinical status of the patients, thus, mRNA could be also an effective chronic treatment for IEM.

Given that the liver plays a key role in most of metabolic pathways or can be used as bioreactor for excretable proteins, this review focuses on the preclinical and clinical evidence that supports the implementation of mRNA technology as a promising personalized strategy for liver metabolic disorders such as acute intermittent porphyria, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency or glycogen storage disease.

Keywords: Energy-related metabolic diseases; Enzyme replacement therapy; Inborn errors of metabolism; Intoxication diseases; Lipid nanoparticles; Rare diseases; Storage disorders; Systemic messenger RNA therapy; mRNA delivery.

CITA DEL ARTÍCULO  Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2022:372:55-96. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2022.03.005. Epub 2022 May 16.