- [HEPATIC DAMAGE AND CARCINOGENESIS]
- [IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTHERAPY]
- [CYTOKINE-BASED THERAPEUTICS]
Bile acids, FGF15/19 and liver regeneration: From mechanisms to clinical applications
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, Maria U Latasa, Maddalen Jimenez, Marina Barcena-Varela, Eva Santamaría, Raquel Urtasun, Carlos Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Jesús Prieto, Pedro Berraondo, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Carmen Berasain, Matías A Avila
The liver has an extraordinary regenerative capacity rapidly triggered upon injury or resection. This response is intrinsically adjusted in its initiation and termination, a property termed the "hepatostat". Several molecules have been involved in liver regeneration, and among them bile acids may play a central role. Intrahepatic levels of bile acids rapidly increase after resection. Through the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bile acids regulate their hepatic metabolism and also promote hepatocellular proliferation. FXR is also expressed in enterocytes, where bile acids stimulate the expression of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), which is released to the portal blood.
Through the activation of FGFR4 on hepatocytes FGF15/19 regulates bile acids synthesis and finely tunes liver regeneration as part of the "hepatostat". Here we review the experimental evidences supporting the relevance of the FXR-FGF15/19-FGFR4 axis in liver regeneration and discuss potential therapeutic applications of FGF15/19 in the prevention of liver failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.
CITATION Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018 Apr;1864(4 Pt B):1326-1334. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.06.025. Epub 2017 Jul 12.